5. Installation of valves. It is better not to weld the armature, but to bind with the help of a wire, since there will be weak spots in the places of welding. It can be knitted by hand or with the help of a special pistol that is tucked in with a wire bay. For tightening more convenient to use a special hook.
6. Pouring concrete. Alignment To achieve a monolithic ribbon of concrete, the solution must be poured as thoroughly as possible. With large volumes, you can use the finished solution.
For work using concrete M200-M400. When using the M200 grade, the quality of the sand (its class) should be higher. The proportions of the solution can be calculated using the table below.
Filling is done in layers no more than 20 cm. After the trench is filled with concrete, it is trimmed with a bayonet spade or by tapping on the frame of the reinforcement or formwork. However, after setting it is undesirable to touch it.
To prevent cracks in the drying process on the foundation, it is covered with a film. The formwork is removed after 8-10 days after laying the last layer.
Video on the topic: Filling the foundation under the house with your own hands
How to pour a foundation under the house with your own hands – a technique + video
In individual housing construction strip foundations are most common, since they ideally perform their functions on virtually all types of soil, are not too complicated for self-pouring, and are also relatively inexpensive. Another common type is pile foundations used on mobile soils. And the very first stage of arranging such foundations will be an accurate calculation of the required amount of building materials, their purchase and delivery to the construction site. It will be reasonable to immediately purchase the entire volume of building materials so as not to be distracted by additional purchases during the work and have time to complete all the work in one warm season.
Directly on the construction site for a start is to mark the territory, i.e. mark the boundaries of the future foundation. The marking should be done taking into account all factors: the occupied area of the future house, its mass, the relief of the ground area of the groundwater level, etc. To do this, pegs are dug along the perimeter of the building and along the borders of the inner, between which a string is stretched with parallel lines. You can check the accuracy of compliance with the mutual perpendicularity of all stripes by comparing the diagonals between the corners of the trench. If they are equal, then all angles are straight.
Make the markup of the future foundation
We dig a trench to fill the foundation
The second stage will be digging a trench for the strip foundation or drilling wells for the pile. In the future, the foundation will be poured into the trench, and piles will be installed in the wells, therefore special attention should be paid to the accuracy of these operations. In particular, trench walls should be reinforced with planks that form the foundation formwork. Instead of boards it is quite possible to use any other suitable material, but wooden boards are advantageous because of their durability, low cost and ease of working with them. The bottom of the trench should be below the depth of soil freezing. The minimum difference between these levels is 20-30 cm. The depth of the wells depends on the density of the soil and is usually about two meters.
When pouring the strip foundation, it will also be necessary to create a sand pillow at the bottom of the trench. This is done by pouring a layer of sand, followed by pouring it with water and ramming. The thickness of the sand pad depends on the characteristics of the soil, as swelling. A layer of tape waterproofing material must be laid over the sand.
The figure dug trench for the foundation
Since the building creates a significant load on the strip foundation, a simple pouring of the cement mixture into the trench is not capable of providing a concrete base with the required strength. So that the foundation does not collapse under the action of compression forces, reinforcing materials should be included in its design.
Reinforcement of the pile foundation consists in maintaining several bars of metal reinforcement before pouring concrete. For a belt foundation, a more complex spatial structure will be required, consisting of vertical and metal rods of metal reinforcement placed in a trench. The distance between adjacent (parallel) rods should not exceed 40 cm. To reinforce rods do not change orientation in space, they should be tied with steel wire or grabbed by electric welding.
The concrete solution must be made immediately before it is poured. If it was decided to purchase a ready-made solution, in this case it will be delivered in a concrete mixer already in a ready-to-use form. For self-production of the mortar, it is worth thinking about purchasing or renting a portable compact concrete mixer in advance in order to be able to prepare concrete directly at the construction site. The standard proportions of a concrete solution are considered to be such that when one part of cement takes approximately three parts of debris-cleaned sand and five parts of medium-sized crushed stone.
The figure shows the process of pouring concrete in formwork
Filling should occur evenly around the perimeter of the strip foundation or the circumference around the pile in the well. In this case, care should be taken that no voids form in the well or trench. In addition, upon completion of the pouring, the concrete mortar must be additionally compacted using a vibrating plate or other similar device.
After the foundation is poured, the concrete will need some time to build strength, so it’s completely unacceptable to start building walls at once. The waiting period largely depends on the ambient temperature, but in the summer period concrete gains brand strength in about four weeks.
Video – how to fill the foundation under the house with your own hands
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How to make a foundation for a house with your own hands
The foundation is the foundation of any structure. Its main purpose is to ensure the strength and reliability of the erected structure. Building a foundation is key to building a house. If you want to build a foundation with your own hands, then do it as best as possible! Qualitatively laid foundation will extend the life of the building, protect it from the negative effects of the environment. Of great importance is the type of foundation, the choice of which depends largely on the type of soil on the construction site and the type of structure.
Foundation types and their features
It is possible to build a house on any foundation; it is only important to take into account the natural conditions of the area where the building site is located. In modern construction, the following types of foundation are used:
- The columnar foundation is erected under wooden or light frame structures, as well as under houses in which the arrangement of the basement is not planned. The base in the form of pillars is ideal for a site with a slope. From an economic point of view, such a foundation is more profitable to build with a large depth of soil freezing or in wetlands.
- The base in the form of concrete tape – the most common option. Ribbon foundation can be erected under the brick houses, block buildings. outbuildings and fences. However, it is not recommended to build heavy stone structures on a strip foundation. The tape basis allows to equip the basement in the house. The best place for the construction of the tape is considered to be a plot with deep groundwater and an insignificant amount of soil freezing.
- Slab base – an ideal basement with dubious characteristics of the soil. It is a solid, solid foundation. The slab is one of the most expensive construction processes that requires accurate calculation. Therefore, to choose a slab foundation is necessary only as a last resort.
- The pile and screw base enjoys wide popularity, thanks to the high bearing ability, the low price and high speed of installation. The weak point of such a base – corrosion of metal piles. It is possible to build a pile foundation on all types of soil with the exception of rocky soil.
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Independent construction of the foundation for the house
In order for the foundation of the house to be strong and reliable, it is necessary to treat each stage of its construction very responsibly.
Stage 1. Layout of the foundation.
Making markup for the foundation
Marking indicates the position of the future house, so the strength of the whole structure depends on its proper performance. The main tools of this stage are wooden pegs and thick threads. The following actions are performed:
- According to the alleged line of the facade of the structure, they drive in pegs and stretch a thread between them. The distance between the stakes should exceed the length of the house by 0.5 m.
- On the thread mark the places where the corners of the house will be located, and draw lines perpendicular to the facade through these marks of the line. Their length should slightly exceed the planned width of the house.
Tip! To check the perpendicularity of the corners, one line should be measured 3 m, on the other – 4 m. If the distance between these points is 5 m, then the angles are right angles.
- For these threads measure the distance equal to the length of the side walls, and make a mark with pegs.
- Between the marks stretch the thread parallel to the front line of the house.
Tip! To check the accuracy of the location of the corners, you need to measure the diagonal of the formed rectangle. If these parameters are equal, then the markup is correct.
- After all the control measurements, the inner lines of the basement are marked. To this end, it is necessary to retreat 0.4 m inside the perimeter. For more accurate marking of corners, pegs are set outside the perimeter.
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Stage 2. Earthworks.
Earthworks during construction
It is possible to perform work at this stage manually, using a shovel. You can attract a special technique that will speed up the process several times. The depth of the trench depends on the chosen type of foundation: for shallow tape – 0.6-0.7 m, for a normal base – about 1.8 m. For arranging the sand-gravel pad, an additional 20 cm is dug.
The walls of the trench must be strictly vertical, to use the building level to check. To prevent the shedding of the soil, you can install props.
The bottom of the trench is carefully leveled, also using the building level to check the horizontal position.
The gravel-sand pillow settles in the following order:
- At the bottom of the sand poured a layer of 10-15 cm, moistened and compacted.
- Re-fill the sand and ram again carefully.
- A layer of gravel up to 15 cm in height is laid over the sand, which is also carefully tamped.
Tip! To avoid erosion or silting of the shallow bottom pillow, the bottom of the trench can be covered with geotextile.
Stage 3. Installation of the formwork for the foundation.
Arrangement of formwork tape grounds – this is a very crucial stage. His main task is to choose the right material. After all, the formwork must withstand a huge mass of concrete solution. Most often for the manufacture of formwork using edged boards with a thickness of more than 20 mm or sheets of moisture-resistant plywood. These materials are low cost and more affordable than other options.
The installation of the formwork is carried out in the following order:
- Rectangular shields are made of planks, fastened with transverse bars. It is better to use screws as fasteners. This will facilitate the dismantling of the formwork system in the future.
- The installation of shields is carried out on both sides of the trench with reinforcement through 50-70 cm with wooden struts. Using struts of the same length, one can achieve the same distance between the opposite sides of the formwork.
- Outside the formwork is fixed with wooden supports. One side of the bars must be cut to 45 0. It is with this end that the bar rests against the formwork shields. This design will make the form more durable.
- Further, the formwork and the bottom of the trench are covered with waterproofing material that will prevent the wood from absorbing the milk from the concrete solution. For this purpose, you can use the usual plastic film.
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Stage 4. Creating a reinforcing frame.
The reinforcing frame laid in the foundation serves to strengthen the base and prolong its service life. Most often, the frame is made of steel rods with a diameter of 10-16 mm, and for their bundles using soft knitting wire. The framework is created in the following way:
- The armature is cut into bars along the length and width of the trench.
- Longitudinal rods laid at a distance, every 25-30 cm fasten transverse elements. The result is a horizontal grille.
- To create a three-dimensional form, the horizontal grids are laid in several rows, also fastened with transverse rods.
To avoid corrosion of reinforcement, it is not recommended to lay the frame directly on the pillow. It is best to use a stand made of scraps of polyethylene pipe.
In the corners of the foundation and at the intersection of the main tape with bearing partitions, you must additionally perform a bundle frame.
Stage 5. Concrete pouring.
Before starting work it is recommended to indicate the level of concrete pouring. For this purpose, on the inside of the boards, formwork tension the fishing line. It must be placed above the frame of the reinforcement by 5 cm and stretch along the entire perimeter of the trench.
To fill the foundation you need to use high-quality concrete factory made. It will be delivered to the site with specialized equipment. But to save money, you can independently prepare the mixture on the site. To do this, you need cement brand M400, crushed stone fines and coarse sand. Compliance with the proportions of the batch is a very important condition that guarantees the production of a high quality solution. Preparation of the mixture is carried out according to the following technology:
- Sift 3 parts of sand and connect them with 5 parts of gravel.
- Mix everything well and add 1 part water. When this fluid is injected in small portions to obtain a solution of medium density.
- The solution is stirred until a homogeneous consistency.
It is necessary to pour the resulting composition in layers of no more than 20 cm. It is very important that the solution fill all voids in the reinforcement cage. For sealing, you can use small bars of reinforcement, piercing the filled mixture with them. This will also remove air bubbles that have formed during the mixing of the solution. If you use a special vibrator, you can increase the strength of the cast base several times.
Fill in the following layers according to a similar scheme, until the concrete is equal to the stretched fishing line. The top of the concrete mix level with a trowel.
Dismantling of the formwork can be done in two weeks, and further construction is recommended to begin only in a month.
Important! The whole period of hardening of the foundation is necessary to monitor its surface. From rain and sunlight, it is necessary to cover the foundation with plastic wrap. In order to avoid cracking – to carry out constant moistening.
How to equip the foundation for the extension to the house
Sometimes at the end of the main construction there is a need to build an extension to the house. To avoid trouble during the operation of this part, it is necessary to build it on a quality basis. To do this, you must follow the rules:
- The foundation of the house and extension must be exactly the same.
- For the rigid mounting of an additional base, the reinforcement cage of the main building is connected with the extension reinforcement.
The process of pouring the foundation for the extension is performed using the same technology as the main tape.
Creating a foundation for your own home is a very important and time-consuming process. However, with the observance of all the rules and regulations, you can make a high-quality and reliable base with your crayfish.
Sources: http://svoimi-rukamy.net/27-fundament-pod-dom.html, http://stroyvopros.net/fundament/kak-zalit-fundament-pod-dom-svoimi-rukami.html, http: //stroykarecept.ru/fundament/montazh/kak-sdelat-fundament-pod-dom-svoimi-rukami.html